Paper Title
Biorefinery Based on Vegetable Oils to Produce Biolubricants: Key Points for a Correct Implementation

Abstract - The use of alternatives for fuels and materials based on petroleum products is becoming more and more important nowadays. Some examples could be biodiesel and biolubricants, which will play an important role replacing their fossil equivalents. In that sense, their combined production through double transesterification from vegetable oils could be the basis for the implementation of a biorefinery, presenting many advantages such as sustainability and implying green processes. Nevertheless, in order to make its implementation suitable, many aspects of a biorefinery should be taken into account. The aim of this work was to assess these aspects, including the influence of raw material, alcohol used, mild reaction conditions, application of post-treatments such as antioxidant addition, or monitoring the process. For this purpose, this work is based in laboratory-scale experiences, whose main results are summarized in this work. As a conclusion, the selection of a suitable raw material (with high contents in stable fatty acids), the use of vacuum to select mild reaction conditions and antioxidant addition were vital to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesel and, especially, biolubricant. On the other hand, the right selection of the alcohol for the second transesterification is important to obtain a suitable viscosity for a specific use of the final biolubricant. Equally, viscosity could be an appropriate way to follow the production of biolubricants. Keywords - Transesterification, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, Alcohol, Vacuum, viscosity, Oxidative Stability.