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Paper Title
Physicochemical Assessment of Camelina sativa Seed Oil and its Alkali based Transesterification to Study FAME Profiling

Abstract
Due to the declining resources of fossil fuel, high demand for energy and the environment issues of the earth there is acute need to introduce the alternative sources of energy which are renewable as well as environment-friendly. There are the different type of sources of energies are introduced earlier by researchers and scientist. Among these, all sources biodiesel is gaining lots of attention because of its environment-friendly nature and comparatively nontoxic exhaust products. In most of the Asian countries, non-edible oils are permissible to use for this purpose, where seed oil is converted to biodiesel via a chemical reaction. In this article, our main concern is to study the Camelina sativa cv. Calena (EC643910) seeds which are collected from the plant grown in Haldwani, Uttarakhand which is the foothill of Kumaun Himalayas. Camelina seed contains high yield of fatty acids which can be converted into biodiesel through transesterification process. We evaluate the oil percentage from its seed by solvent extraction and studied physicochemical analysis such as Acid Value, FFA, density, Refractive index, Iodine value etc. Besides this, the fatty acid composition of the Camelina oil was studied using GC MS. Seed harvested from DIBER, HQ, Haldwani was used for this purpose. Transesterification was carried out using alkali catalyst to transform oil into biodiesel. Oil percentage was estimated via Soxhlet apparatus using hexane as a solvent and it gives around 36 % of oil with a clear appearance. The acid value of the oil was 2.18 mg KOH/g and after transesterification, it was reduced to 0.36 mg KOH/g. The conversion of oil into biodiesel was confirmed by TLC. The density of oil and biodiesel were 927.5 kg/m3 and 872 kg/m3 which are within the specified limit of ASTM D6751-08 standard. Refractive index of oil and biodiesel were found 1.426 and 1.413 respectively. Further to this, the GC-MS study revealed that major FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) in Camelina biodiesel are linoleic acid (C18:2) 30.22 %, Elaidic acid (C19:1) 19.26 %, Eicosenoic acid (C21:1) 16.78, Palmitic acid (C17:0) 7.28 % and rest of other fatty acids. Study results show that camelina oil can be a good biofuel feedstock for the future prospect. Keywords - Biodiesel; Camelina sativa; Transesterification; Methyl esters, Triglycerides.


Author - Rakshit Pathak, Anjali Kumari, Mohammed Mohsin, Ganga Bisht, Madhu Bala

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